Tribology is the science of lubrication, friction and wear in objects which rub against each other in motion. A tribological system is the collection of four main parts. They are, the main body which moves, the opposing body which resists the motion, the intermediate material and the surrouding medium. Consider a shaft supported by a …

## Fretting

Fretting is the wear that occurs in two surfaces which are supposed to be stationary. In certain conditions, very slight motion may occur between surfaces which are otherwise stationary. This can be due to vibration or due to dimensional changes due to temperature variations. If the change is repetitive, there can be wear along the …

## Total Acid Number (TAN)

The Total Acid Number (TAN) is the number of milligrams of Potassium Hydroxide (mgKOH) required to neutralize the acidic compounds present in one gram of oil. It is represented in mgKOH/gram. The TAN is an important parameter in lubricating oils and in hydraulic oils. At high temperatures, the rate of oxidation in oils increases. This …

## Total Base Number (TBN)

The Total Base Number (TBN) indicates the basic(alkaline) nature of an lubricating oil used in engines. Higher the TBN, more basic is the oil. Such an oil can withstand highly acidic impurities. TBN is measured in mgKOH/gram. This indicates the milligrams of Potassium Hydroxide that each gram of the oil is equal to. Oils used …

## Hydraulic Coefficients

In Fluid dynamics, the following four coefficients are known as Hydraulic Coefficients. They are Coefficient of Contraction This is the ratio of the area of the jet at Vena Contracta to the area of the orifice. Coefficient of Velocity This is the ratio of the actual velocity of the jet at vena contracta to the …

## Hydrostatic Pumps

A hydrostatic pump is also known as a positive displacement pump. In a hydrostatic pump, the volume of liquid discharged per cycle is constant. In hydrostatic pumps, the liquid is drawn in to a chamber and then discharged. A reciprocating pump with a piston and a cylinder is an example for a hydrostatic pump.

## Velocimetry – An Overview

Velocimetry refers to the study of the flow of fluids. It is very important in the field of fluid dynamics and in the design of equipments, such as, pumps and turbines. The flow of liquids can be studied by adding small materials such as bits of paper or styrofoam in water. This helps the observer …

## Bar in pressure measurement

The bar is a very common unit of pressure. It is used in the industry for normal operational measurements. It is popular as one bar is approximately equal to the normal atmospheric pressure (slightly lower, 0.987 atmosphere). This helps people to visualize the pressure easily. A millibar is 1/1000th of a bar. A bar is …

## Pounds per square inch (psi)

Pounds per square inch is a very common unit of pressure. It belongs to the Imperial System of measurement. It is widely used in industries, tyres and other applications. The unit indicates that the pressure is equivalent to a certain number of pounds applied to a square inch of area. There are two variations of …